We do this by our Arithmetic; thirdly, Cosmography; observation and by following the and fourthly, judicial astrology. Ecliptic, ascendant houses… ject. From the Islamic perspective, astrology can be divided into two branches - pol- ytheistic and lawful. Bertrand Russel.
Lytord, Jean-Francois. The Postmodern Condition: A report on knowledge, vol. USA: University of Minnesota. Mazhar M. Intro- duction to Muslim Contribu- tions to Science and Technology. Mohammad Iqbal.
Introduction in: The <i>Great Introduction to Astrology</i> by Abū Maʿšar (2 vols.)
By just having a look Muhammad Mumtaz Ali. Al-Biruni: Commemo- years ago, while this reality was evance and authenticity. In addi- rative Volume. Karachi: Ham- unknown purposefully or out of ig- tion, his remarks about the validity dard Academy. Melbourne: Krieger Pub Co. Retrieved great scientists of medieval Islam, mad Ibn Ahmad. Kitab Jan 19, Related Papers. Reassessment of Islamic Astronomical Sciences.
By Shihab Al Tamimi. By Azizul Mollah. Comparative Religion in Medieval Muslim Literature. By Hilman Latief. Al-Biruni's India. By avinash Singh. Download pdf. Remember me on this computer. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. Need an account? There he wrote his first important work, al-Athar al-Baqqiya 'an al-Qorun al-Khaliyya literally: "The remaining traces of past centuries" and translated as "Chronology of ancient nations" or "Vestiges of the Past" on historical and scientific chronology, probably around A.
He also visited the court of the Bavandid ruler Al-Marzuban. Accepting the definite demise of the Afrighids at the hands of the Ma'munids, he made peace with the latter who then ruled Khwarezm. Their court at Gorganj also in Khwarezm was gaining fame for its gathering of brilliant scientists. In , Mahmud of Ghazni took Rey. Most scholars, including al-Biruni, were taken to Ghazni, the capital of the Ghaznavid dynasty. He was forty-four years old when he went on the journeys with Mahmud of Ghazni.
He may even have learned some Sanskrit. During this time he wrote his study of India, finishing it around He sought to find a method to measure the height of the sun, and created an early version of an astrolabe for that purpose.
Al-Biruni: Astrological Article and Chart
His endorsement of astrology is limited, in so far as he condemns horary astrology  as 'sorcery'. In discussing speculation by other Muslim writers on the possible motion of the Earth, Biruni acknowledged that he could neither prove nor disprove it, but commented favourably on the idea that the Earth rotates. There are, however, other reasons which make it impossible. This question is most difficult to solve.
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The most prominent of both modern and ancient astronomers have deeply studied the question of the moving of the earth, and tried to refute it. We, too, have composed a book on the subject called Miftah-ilm-alhai'a Key to Astronomy , in which we think we have surpassed our predecessors, if not in the words, at all events in the matter.
In his description of Sijzi's astrolabe he hints at contemporary debates over the movement of the earth. He carried on a lengthy correspondence and sometimes heated debate with Ibn Sina , in which Biruni repeatedly attacks Aristotle's celestial physics : he argues by simple experiment that vacuum must exist;  he is "amazed" by the weakness of Aristotle's argument against elliptical orbits on the basis that they would create vacuum;  he attacks the immutability of the celestial spheres;  and so on.
In his major extant astronomical work, the Mas'ud Canon , Biruni utilizes his observational data to disprove Ptolemy's immobile solar apogee. He drew many different depictions of various instruments that are considered to be the precursors of more modern objects such as clocks and the astrolabe, in which other scientists were able to use to complete these inventions in the coming years.
Along with those methods, Biruni went so far as to describe instruments that go along with each of those areas as well.
Although he never entirely focuses just on physics in any of his books, the study of physics is present throughout many of his various works. Biruni also came up with different hypotheses about heat and light. The result of his discovery of radius measurement was due to Biruni's arduous research about the earth. In his Codex Masudicus , Al-Biruni theorized the existence of a landmass along the vast ocean between Asia and Europe , or what is today known as the Americas.
He deduced its existence on the basis of his accurate estimations of the Earth's circumference and Afro-Eurasia 's size, which he found spanned only two-fifths of the Earth's circumference, and his discovery of the concept of specific gravity , from which he deduced that the geological processes that gave rise to Eurasia must've also given rise to lands in the vast ocean between Asia and Europe. He also theorized that the landmass must be inhabited by human beings, which he deduced from his knowledge of humans inhabiting the broad north-south band stretching from Russia to South India and Sub-Saharan Africa , theorizing that the landmass would most likely lie along the same band.
Biruni's most important work was a major pharmacopoeia , the "Kitab al-saydala fi al-tibb" Book on the Pharmacopoeia of Medicine , describing essentially all the medicines known in his time. Due to an apparatus he constructed himself, he succeeded in determining the specific gravity of a certain number of metals and minerals with remarkable precision. He elaborated upon the fact that the earth was created from the elements and not solely through divine creation. Even though Islam did influence his study, he did acknowledge the role of the elements. He treated religions objectively, striving to understand them on their own terms rather than trying to prove them wrong.
His underlying concept was that all cultures are at least distant relatives of all other cultures because they are all human constructs. Al-Biruni divides Hindus into an educated and an uneducated class. He describes the educated as monotheistic, believing that God is one, eternal, and omnipotent and eschewing all forms of idol worship. He recognizes that uneducated Hindus worshiped a multiplicity of idols yet points out that even some Muslims such as the Jabiriyya have adopted anthropomorphic concepts of God. Al-Biruni wrote about the peoples, customs and religions of the Indian subcontinent.
According to Akbar S.
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Ahmed, like modern anthropologists, he engaged in extensive participant observation with a given group of people, learnt their language and studied their primary texts, presenting his findings with objectivity and neutrality using cross-cultural comparisons. Akhbar S. Ahmed concluded that Al-Biruni can be considered as the first Anthropologist,  however, others argue that he hardly can be considered an anthropologist in the conventional sense. Al-Biruni's fame as an Indologist rests primarily on two texts. During his journey through India, military and political histories were not of Al-Biruni's main focus.
Instead, he decided to document the more civilian and scholarly areas of Hindu life such as culture, science, and religion. I shall not produce the arguments of our antagonists in order to refute such of them, as I believe to be in the wrong. My book is nothing but a simple historic record of facts. I shall place before the reader the theories of the Hindus exactly as they are, and I shall mention in connection with them similar theories of the Greeks in order to show the relationship existing between them.
An example of Al-Biruni's analysis is his summary of why many Hindus hate Muslims. Biruni notes in the beginning of his book how the Muslims had a hard time learning about Hindu knowledge and culture. Moreover, Hindus in 11th century India had suffered waves of destructive attacks on many of its cities, and Islamic armies had taken numerous Hindu slaves to Persia, which—claimed Al-Biruni—contributed to Hindus becoming suspicious of all foreigners, not just Muslims. Hindus considered Muslims violent and impure, and did not want to share anything with them.
Over time, Al-Biruni won the welcome of Hindu scholars. Al-Biruni collected books and studied with these Hindu scholars to become fluent in Sanskrit, discover and translate into Arabic the mathematics, science, medicine, astronomy and other fields of arts as practiced in 11th-century India. He was inspired by the arguments offered by Indian scholars who believed earth must be globular in shape, which is the only way to fully explain the difference in daylight hours by latitude, seasons and earth's relative positions with moon and stars.
At the same time, Al-Biruni was also critical of Indian scribes who he believed carelessly corrupted Indian documents while making copies of older documents. One of the specific aspects of Hindu life that Al-Biruni studied was the Hindu calendar. His scholarship on the topic exhibited great determination and focus, not to mention the excellence in his approach of the in-depth research he performed. Biruni also employed astronomy in the determination of his theories, which were complex mathematical equations and scientific calculation that allows one to convert dates and years between the different calendars.
The book does not limit itself to tedious records of battle because Al-Biruni found the social culture to be more important. The work includes research on a vast array of topics of Indian culture, including descriptions of their traditions and customs. Although he tried to stay away from political and military history, Biruni did indeed record important dates and noted actual sites of where significant battles occurred. Additionally, he chronicled stories of Indian rulers and told of how they ruled over their people with their beneficial actions and acted in the interests of the nation.
But, his details are brief and mostly just list rulers without referring to their real names. He did not go on about deeds that each one carried out during their reign, which keeps in line with Al-Biruni's mission to try to stay away from political histories. Al-Biruni also described the geography of India in his work. He documented different bodies of water and other natural phenomena. These descriptions are useful to today's modern historians because they are able to use Biruni's scholarship to locate certain destinations in modern-day India.
Historians are able to make some matches while also concluding that certain areas seem to have disappeared and been replaced with different cities. Different forts and landmarks were able to be located, legitimizing Al-Biruni's contributions with their usefulness to even modern history and archeology.
The dispassionate account of Hinduism given by Al-Biruni was remarkable for its time. He stated that he was fully objective in his writings, remaining unbiased like a proper historian should.
Biruni documented everything about India just as it happened. But, he did note how some of the accounts of information that he was given by natives of the land may not have been reliable in terms of complete accuracy, however, he did try to be as honest as possible in his writing.